2. Reports


A report should be written (1) As an extension of your own thoughts based on supporting evidence (2) Within a determined format (3) In an objective, logical manner. (1) Content (2) Structure (3) Perspective Review. (1) Write how you feel (2) in the sequence of your choice (3) in an subjective manner.

A report is an academic paper in which the author raises an issue, and then shares his or her thoughts on the issue in an objective, logical manner. In order to deal with the issue at hand, the author must do a literature search to find previous examples and research, compile the resulting data to perform local surveys and experiments. Reports shall be written based on your own thinking, as indicated by facts and premises obtained from surveys. This point illustrates the major difference between writing a report and a review, in which you freely write about your own opinions.

Types of reports

Steps to take when writing a report

 Everyone is somewhat confused when getting their first reporting assignment. The task of writing a report can be divided into 4 steps as shown on the diagram in the right. These steps are not always followed in order during the report writing process. For example, by collecting data in Step 2, you will expand an understanding of the topic in Step 1.

Report writing etiquette

 The author must follow several types of etiquette when writing a report. Since it is an academic paper, you must think of the reader's perspective, choose your expressions based on that, and write in a clear style. Also, your own opinion must be clearly distinguished from the research and survey results of others which must be used as a basis. Expressing the ideas and opinions of others as if they are your own is a form of plagiarism, and may violate certain copyrights. When using the opinions and facts of others, there are certain quotation and summary rules to follow, and your sources must be clearly referenced (refer to "5. Quotations and copyrights" starting on page 20).

Report structure

The most frustrating step to writing a report is generally Step 3, actually writing it. Refer to the following structure to write the report using a systematic approach.

(1) Cover page (title, author's name and school) (2) Body introduction: Raise an issue, and provide a brief summary of the report's content. Subject: Demonstrate the issue based on facts obtained through surveys or research. Conclusion: Summarize the argument and express your conclusion (3) Document list

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